What Is APIPA ???
Automatic Private IP Addressing called as APIPA, this an inbuilt feature of Windows Operating System. APIPA is meant for environments like a non-routed small business (less than 25 users).
How APIPA – Automatic Private IP Addressing Works
APIPA come to works when DHCP refuse to give service. DHCP can automatically configure a dynamic IP on client’s devices but when DHCP server isn’t available APIPA automatically self-configure an IP address and subnet mask on that client device.
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The process is, when the DHCP client device boots up, at first it’s looking for a working DHCP server for setting/assigning an IP address if the process is not successful. Then Windows Operating system brings APIPA to work, it automatically configures an IP address in the device with the help of “gratuitous ARP broadcast“. The IP address range will be “169.254.0.1 to 169.254.255.254“ and the subnet mask will be default class B 255.255.0.0.
The APIPA will stop working if it found a working DHCP server. The system (APIPA Service) regularly checks for it. Usually every five minutes later. If it detects a working DHCP server on the local network, APIPA will stop working and give DHCP to start working. It replaces with Dynamic IP the APIPA networking address.